The history of the Laboratory creation and development
The history of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures (ILHMF<) dates back to 1964, when the international group of scientists from Eastern Europe dealing with solid state physics came to a conclusion that further development of research in this area should be extended by making use of extremely low temperatures and high magnetic fields. In Wrocław there already existed quite large group of physicists that investigated physical properties of solids in low temperatures and high, as for those days, magnetic fields. Moreover, near Wrocław, in Odolanów, liquid helium was produced what enabled doing experiments in very low temperatures. The mentioned group of physicists had also some experiences in constructing high power magnets. For those reasons Wrocław had been chosen as the site of International Laboratory.
The official date when the Laboratory came into existence was May 11, 1968. The representatives of four Academies of Science: of Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Poland and Soviet Union, have signed an agreement to create the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, intended to serve the scientists from these Academies. The first Director of the Laboratory became Professor Włodzimierz Trzebiatowski, at that time regular member of Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) and its President. After his death, this function has been taken up for the period 1982–1993 by Professor Bohdan Staliński, regular member of PAS. From 1993 till 2012 the Director of the Laboratory was Professor Jan Klamut, honorary member of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). During his tenure, in 2006, the Laboratory has been transformed into an International Institute of PAS. According to new regulations, the competition for this post has been announced in 2012, and the new Director became Professor Mirosław Miller.
The first President of the IL Scientific Council was the outstanding experimental physicist Professor N.E. Alekseevskii, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Soviet Union. In 1993 he was replaced by Professor A.S. Borovik-Romanov, regular member of the Academy of Sciences of Soviet Union. After his death, in 1997, the Scientific Council President became Professor A.F. Andreev, regular member of RAS and its Vice-president for many years.
Polish scientists started to organize the Laboratory in the premises at 95 Próchnik Street (now Gajowicka Street). This space has been offered free of charge by the Institute of Low Temperature and Structural Research of PAS, together with two power supply equipped Bitter-type magnets generating magnetic fields up to 4 and 10T. In the seventies, due to own efforts of IL staff and in co-operation with Russian physicists two subsequent Bitter-type magnets were constructed that generated fields up to 15 and 20T. In the second half of seventies a superconducting magnet has been purchased that gave very stable magnetic field of induction up to 15T. At the end of seventies an impulse magnet has been constructed (under cooperation of Polish, Russian and Estonian physicists) that generated short duration magnetic field impulses of intensity up to 42T.
In the years 1990–2000 the Laboratory underwent modernization. New building has been constructed and new direct current supply has been set in motion, yielding target power of 30 MW. Now it feeds the magnet constructed by the Laboratory personnel that generates prolonged (0.3s) magnetic field impulses of intensity up to 40T. In 2004 another superconducting magnet was purchased, yielding stable fields of 15T intensity. At present the Laboratory is in possession of three Bitter-type magnets (10, 15 and 18T), two superconducting ones (15T) and two generating impulse fields (40T, 0.3s; 42T, 0.01s). These magnets are equipped with unique measurement inserts that allow to perform advanced studies of transport and magnetic properties of solids in the temperature range 2 to 350 K.
Latest information about the Laboratory
Currently the regular members of the Laboratory are four Academies of Sciences: of Bulgaria, Poland, Russia and Ukraine, while associated members are scientific institutes from Great Britain, Moldova and Germany. IL is moreover potential partner for bilateral partnership agreements and letters of intent with scientific institutions, businesses, self-government units and so on, aimed at future common realization of scientific and technological projects, financed from domestic, international and private funds.
At the end of the first decade of 21th century a part of Laboratory premises in the new building has been transformed into living quarters for the scientists that arrive to perform measurements. This has considerably improved the conditions of their stay. The number of researchers increased, in particular in the group of younger workers. Now the scientific personnel consists of 3 full professors, 2 associate professors, 3 assistant professors and 3 assistants.
In the last few years the scientific activity increased, both among
guests (the yearly average was 5 persons per day realizing measurements), and
among the Laboratory workers. This resulted in 40–50 publications each year,
mainly in international scope journals, and in some 40 presentation at scientific
conferences. New measuring system PPMS (Quantum Design) with 14T induction
magnet has been purchased to extend the research potential of the Laboratory.
In 2016 equipment International Laboratory became enriched with with three new pulse magnets (40T, 50T, 50T) with accessories (power and instrumentation). In May 2016, they set in motion, constructed in the laboratory, two-coil electromagnet with a replaceable internal coil was applied the fields of 54 T intensity have been obtained.